A Christmas Carol is a novel by English author Charles Dickens, which is first published by Chapman & Hall on 19 December 1843. It shows the story of bitter old miser Ebenezer Scrooge and his transformation resulting from supernatural visits by Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmases Past, Present and Yet to Come. The novel met with instant success and critical applause. The tale begins on a “cold, bleak, biting” Christmas Eve exactly after seven years the death of Scrooge’s business partner Jacob Marley. Scrooge, an old miser, is made within the first stave as “a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous, old sinner!” He hates Christmas, calling it “humbug”; he refuses his nephew Fred’s Christmas dinner invitation, and rudely turns away two gentlemen who seek a donation from him to provide a Christmas dinner for the poor.